Although the Arctic Ocean is by far the smallest of the Earth’s oceans, having only a little more than one-sixth the area of the next largest, the Indian Ocean, its area of 5,440,000 square miles (14,090,000 square km) is five times larger than that of the largest sea, the Mediterranean. Vast expanses of pack ice cover deep ocean composing the planet's largest and least fragmented inhabited region. North of the Arctic Circle at 66°33"N, it is the land of the midnight sun and polar nights. The sediments of the Arctic Ocean floor record the natural of the physical environment, climate, and ecosystems on time scales determined by the ability to sample them through coring and at resolutions determined by the rates of deposition. It separates the Atlantic Ocean into two large troughs each of which with a depth ranging from 12,100-18,000 ft (3,700-5,500 metres). New measurements show that the deep water of the Arctic Ocean is not simply a uniform body of water but has an internal structure in its hydrography, mixing history and motion. Depth of the Arctic Ocean Since she has been embedded in the pack ice on the 4th of September 2006, Tara has been drifting along the chain (or ridge) of Lomonossov. The ocean is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait and the Atlantic Ocean by the Greenland Sea. he Arctic Ocean and parts of Russia, Canada, Greenland, Lapland, Norway, Alaska, and Iceland make up the Arctic region of the North Pole. The melting ice causes freshwater to be added to the seawater in the Arctic Ocean which flows into the North Atlantic. What kind of threats does the Arctic face?The Arctic faces threats from oil and gas development, fisheries management, and mining and shipping traffic. Yet this ocean has been called an “upside-down” ocean by famous oceanographer Fridtjof Nansen. Most of the Arctic Ocean is over 1000 m deep and is continuously covered with ice whose thickness varies between 1-10 m. About one third of the Arctic Ocean is shallow, i.e. Dr. Kirstin Thompson is among those using new technologies to identify species roaming the frigid northern waters. The Arctic Ocean, and sea ice . 4. An icebreaker or a nuclear-powered submarine can use the Northwest Passage through the Arctic Ocean to go between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. WWF also distributes educational materials to reduce bear-human conflict, and works with locals to gather scientific information about the bears. Most researchers favour a hypothesis of opening by rotation of the Arctic-Alaska lithospheric plate away from the North American Plate during the Cretaceous Period (about 145 to 65 million years ago). Hidden beneath the Fram Strait, a passage that separates Greenland and Svalbard, lies the deepest point in the Arctic Ocean, where the seafloor plunges some 18,209 feet (5,550 meters) down. The melting ice causes freshwater to be added to the seawater in the Arctic Ocean which flows into the North Atlantic. The deepest point is in the Eurasian Basin, at 5,450 m (17,900 ft). Deepest known point is Molloy Deep at 5 557 m in the Fram Strait between Svalbard and Greenland. The Arctic is a vast, ice-covered ocean, surrounded by tree-less, frozen ground, that teems with life, including organisms living in the ice, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, and human societies. 9. Hidden beneath the Fram Strait, a passage that separates Greenland and Svalbard, lies the deepest point in the Arctic Ocean, where the seafloor plunges some 18,209 feet (5,550 meters) down. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the trench is almost 5 times wider than it is deep. The Arctic Ocean, and sea ice . A whopping 94% of all life-forms on Earth are aquatic. The deepest reaches of the Arctic Ocean contain one of the most desolate environments on our entire planet. The Arctic Ocean has played a minor role in world history. The oceans' deepest area is the Mariana Trench, also called the Marianas Trench, which is in the western part of the Pacific Ocean. Join us to make change. Yes, Arctic Ocean contains some amount of radioactive as well as the other oceans. https://www.britannica.com/place/Arctic-Ocean, NOAA - Ocean Explorer - The Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005, British Broadcasting Corporation - The Arctic Ocean, Arctic Ocean - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Arctic Ocean - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Way further than you think. Scientists have discovered a new type of chlamydia species deep in the Arctic Ocean. The name doesn’t come from the iconic polar bear, but from constellations in the northern sky of the Arctic, ‘Ursa Minor’ (Little Bear) and ‘Ursa Major’ (Great Bear). There is a July isotherm at 10°C or 50°F in accordance with the treeline. They are a filter-feeder shark that cruises through the ocean at low speeds filtering zooplankton along their tiny teeth. This major under-water ridge, discovered in the middle of the past century separates the Canadian basin from the Eurasian basin. New chlamydia species discovered deep under the Arctic Ocean By Harmeet Kaur, CNN 3/10/2020. Radioactivity: last but not least the unique characteristics of Arctic Ocean is radioactivity. The origin of the Amerasia Basin is far less clear. Those are from deep to shallow Arctic Deep Water, Atlantic Water, and Arctic Surface Water. During the summer months, the sun shines up to 24 hours a day. 6. Almost all global natural occurrences are influenced by Arctic. The work entailed long cruises to ice-covered seas. The Arctic Ocean, also known as the Northern Ocean, is located in the Northern Hemisphere and is the smallest and the least shallow of the five oceans on our planet. The stratification is typified by a low-salinity surface mixed layer (as much as 50 m deep) over cold saline water, underlain by warmer salty Atlantic water down to about 1600 m, with deep water beneath (Carmack, 2000). The most northern parts of Eurasia and North America are around the Arctic Ocean. Many Arctic residents are indigenous people who have adapted to live in one of the harshest environments in the world. It is also the coldest. Deep beneath the seabed of the Arctic Ocean, researchers have found some very unexpected residents: dozens of new chlamydiae species, cousins of the bacteria that are not so welcome above ground. 110 views 5. Assistant Administrator for Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Rockville, Maryland, 1990–96. The North Polesits in the middle of the Arctic Ocean, on water that is almost always covered with ice. It is the only ocean smaller than Russia, which has a land area of 16,377,742 km (6,323,482 sq mi). It’s diverse and often dramatic landscapes include sea ice, coastal wetlands, upland tundra, glaciers, mountains, wide rivers, and the sea itself. The Arctic region includes a vast, ice-covered ocean. International New York Times, Nov 27 … Our vision is a world powered by renewable energy, where communities and ecosystems are resilient in the face of climate changes. This is changing, however, because the Arctic may exhibit a strong response to global change and may be capable of initiating dramatic climatic changes through alterations induced in the oceanic thermohaline circulation by its cold, southward-moving currents or through its effects on the global albedo resulting from changes in its total ice cover. As ice in Arctic melts faster, it is a sign of possible drastic change to the earth and everyone should be aware of it. The region does not experience much fluctuation throughout the year in terms of temperature, and temperatures during the long winter months remain very cold but stable. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Besides its deterrence to the exchange of energy between the ocean and the atmosphere, the formation of sea ice generates vast quantities of cold water that help drive the circulation of the world ocean system. Ice coverage in the Arctic Ocean is currently the highest it has been since 2010 with support from the strongest polar vortex on record. 1250 24th Street, N.W. The Arctic is one of the most stark and beautiful places on Earth. For four decades, WWF has been part of the movement to fight this global crisis. The Lomonosov ridge divides the Arctic Ocean floor into the Eurasian and Amerasian Basins, which are between 13,000 and 14,800 feet deep. These points are much deeper than the majority of the ocean, which has an average depth of only 3,406 feet. Omissions? You can find the Porbeagle hunting in Arctic waters as deep as 4,460 ft (1,360 m). 2 to 3 meters thick – floating above the 13,000-foot-deep (4,000-meter-deep) Arctic Ocean. Flip through the report or download below. Arctic Ocean, smallest of the world’s oceans, centring approximately on the North Pole. The race is on to investigate the rich ecosystem of the Arctic ocean. In the summer half of the ice disappears. Washington, DC 20037. But it is especially the American sub-marine Hawkbill that mapped out the ridge completely. An iceberg floats past Bylot Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in 2017. Climate 25, 8362 (2012). Why does the Arctic matter?The Arctic is home to several million people. What species live in the Arctic?The diversity of the landscape of the Arctic means a wide array of wildlife. Arctic Ocean: An Overview. The depthof the ocean at the North Poleis more than 4,000 meters (13,123 feet). The Arctic story is a tale of sweeping geologic change catalyzing a sweeping geopolitical contest. The Arctic Ocean is located at the North Pole, sometimes considered the top of the world. It is clear from aeromagnetic and seismic data that the Eurasia Basin was formed by seafloor spreading along the axis of the Nansen-Gakkel Ridge. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. WHOI oceanographer Bob Pickart and colleagues have been studying water movement across the Arctic Shelf into the Arctic Ocean basin, part of a multi-year project to learn more about this little-studied region. Basking Shark: Basking Sharks are the second largest fish in the ocean. At just over 14 million square kilometres, the Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world’s oceans. It is the northern segment of the one water body that encompasses all of the world – the World Ocean. Scientists have discovered a new type of chlamydia species deep in the Arctic Ocean. Indeed, there are 30 importance of the Arctic ocean we should know. In recent years, scientists have measured dwindling ice … Arlis II (USA, 1963), Lorex (Canada, 1979), Arctic Ocean (1991, 1996, 1998 and 2001) with the ice breakers Polarster (Germany) and Oden (Sweden). View our inclusive approach to conservation. The Arctic Ocean is the smallest ocean in the world. The coastline is 45,390 km (28,200 mi) long. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The ocean floor is thought to be mostly flat, but there are also a number of trenches, basins and canyons throughout, which cause the measured depth of the Atlantic Ocean … The Arctic ice cap is a shifting pack of sea ice some 6.5 to 10 feet i.e. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Molloy Deep (also known as the Molloy Hole) is a bathymetric feature in the Fram Strait, within the Greenland Sea east of Greenland and about 160 km west of Svalbard.It is the location of the deepest point in the Arctic Ocean. Where did the name 'Arctic' come from?‘Arctic’ comes from the Greek word for bear: Arktos. It is known as Loki’s Castle, a large field of hydrothermal vents on the sea floor that’s extremely low in oxygen and high in pressure — and a very difficult place for any organisms to survive. Updates? Melting sea ice is gradually making the Arctic Ocean accessible to economic development. It is also the coldest. ... and it is circulated through mixing into the deep ocean… Hydrothermal vents have been found all over the ocean, including regions of the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern and Arctic oceans. Better understanding of the origin of the Arctic Ocean’s basins and ridges is critical for reconstructing the paleoclimatic evolution of the ocean and for understanding its relevance to global environmental changes. 7. Deepest Point in the Arctic Ocean Eurasia Basin: 17,881 feet / 5450 meters 3. Most of the Arctic Ocean is over 1000 m deep and is continuously covered with ice whose thickness varies between 1-10 m. About one third of the Arctic Ocean is shallow, i.e. Vast expanses of pack ice cover deep ocean composing the planet's largest and least fragmented inhabited region. Even a slight shift in temperature could potentially result in an ice-free Arctic within this century. The outer rim of the trench is at a depth of 2,700 m (8,900 ft) and contains about 600 km 2 inside the rim, descending to approximately 5,550 m (18,210 ft) at its greatest depth. But climate change is the single greatest threat to the Arctic. Home to an array of species—from polar bears to whales—the Arctic faces threats from oil and gas development and a changing climate. This has caused the North Atlantic to become fresher over the past several decades and has caused the currents to slow. During the winter the Arctic ice pack grows to the size of the United States. The Arctic Ocean is experiencing some of the world's most drastic warming from climate change. The Arctic Ocean is the ocean around the North Pole. Speak up for species and places through WWF's Action Center. Leader or participant in several... Oceans Across the World: Fact or Fiction? Sort out the facts and see how deep your knowledge goes in this quiz of the world’s oceans. A primary distinction can be made between the upper deep water, less saline than 34.92 to 34.93, which may derive rather directly from the Greenland or Norwegian Sea, and the lower deep water, which has had its … The Lomonosov ridge divides the Arctic Ocean floor into the Eurasian and Amerasian Basins, which are between 13,000 and 14,800 feet deep. As reported by the National Snow & Ice Data Center (NSIDC), the Siberian heatwave that hit the Arctic region in June 2020 caused air temperatures to rise by 1 to 4 degrees Celsius above average over most of the Arctic Ocean, with the exception of the Siberian coast of the Laptev sea, where temperatures were 8 degrees higher than average. Litke Deep at 5 309 m is in the Arctic Ocean, was previous estimated to be 5 450, and the deepest spot know until Molloy Deep was found. You know that Arctic Ocean is covered by ice packs. Thus there is no direct evidence of the onset of cooling that produced the present perennial ice cover. The average depth of the Arctic Ocean is 1,038 m (3,410 ft). How big is the Arctic Ocean?The Arctic Ocean is about 5.4 million square miles—about 1.5 times as big as the US—but it is the world’s smallest ocean. 8. The Arctic is also a rich habitat for wildlife and contains vast resources like enormous freshwater reserves, fossil fuels, and fisheries. WWF is working with governments, businesses, and communities to help preserve the region’s rich biodiversity. Wind and water stresses keep the ice pack in almost continuous motion, causing the formation of cracks (leads), open ponds (polynya), and pressure ridges. Arctic Ocean. Due to climate changes, summer Arctic ice cover is diminishing, and scientists therefore believe it is vitally important to get a better understanding of this environment and what impact future changes might bring to our world. Such speculations provided incentives for adventurous men to risk the hazards of severe climate and fear of the unknown to further geographic knowledge and national and personal prosperity. At just over 14 million square kilometres, the Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world’s oceans. Animals that can survive in the Arctic Ocean are adapted for this extreme environment. Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy. Ocean Conservancy teamed up with the Marine Exchange of Alaska to produce a short report to describe how advances in navigation and communications technologies can help enhance shipping safety and environmental protection in the U.S. Arctic. World Wildlife Fund Inc. is a nonprofit, tax-exempt charitable organization (tax ID number 52-1693387) under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. WWF worked directly with residents to create an “Umky” patrol in Chukotka, Russia and to secure better lighting for communities. It is located around the North Pole and is surrounded by some countries like Greenland, Alaska, Canada, Russia and Norway. Generally, the water depth of the Arctic ocean ranges from 1700 meters to 2500 meters depending on the amount of water that flows in and out of the Arctic Ocean from the different Oceans. Arctic Ocean: History and Now. The deepest reaches of the Arctic Ocean contain one of the most desolate environments on our entire planet. Around most of the globe, the surface ocean is warmed by the sun and loses freshwater through evaporation, making it warmer and saltier than the waters below. Is all of the Arctic covered in snow?The Arctic consists of more than just the snow-covered terrain that people expect. The deepest place on Earth, known as Challenger Deep, extends to a depth of more than 11,000 meters (36,000 feet) and is found in the Mariana Trench, in the Pacific. Alaska alone is estimated to have more than 100,000 glaciers. It is the coldest ocean on Earth and is often capped with sea ice. This basin is known as the Canada Basin. The Arctic story is a tale of sweeping geologic change catalyzing a sweeping geopolitical contest. Deepest known point is Molloy Deep at 5 557 m in the Fram Strait between Svalbard and Greenland. It is the location of the deepest point in the Arctic Ocean. With less sea ice every year, polar bears and many other ice-dependent creatures are at risk. Donations are tax-deductible as allowed by law. Arctic Ocean - Arctic Ocean - Sea ice: The cover of sea ice suppresses wind stress and wind mixing, reflects a large proportion of incoming solar radiation, imposes an upper limit on the surface temperature, and impedes evaporation. 3 3. The added freshwater makes the seawater less dense. Eurasia Basin: 17,881 feet / 5450 meters which is found year-round over the past century separates Atlantic. Arctic oceans making the Arctic Ocean contain one of the Atlantic Ocean by the masses... 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